Greek gods, their names and attributes
According to Greek mythology, Greek gods are a race of powerful, immortal beings. They began their reign over the world after the titan era. Among the first six gods were Zeus, Hera, Hestia, Poseidon, Demeter, and Hades, who defeated their father Kronos I in the Titanomachia. The gods inhabited Olympus - the highest of the Greek mountains, from the summit of which they could observe and direct the fate of people. They are a very important element of European culture. What were the attributes of the Greek gods? What did they look like and what were their names?
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1. What is Greek Mythology?
Greek Mythology is a collection of myths passed down through the ancient Greek tradition. These are stories about heroes and gods, explaining how the world works, its origin and history, and the place that humans occupy in it.
Greek mythology was a source of knowledge about the world and on its basis, ethical standards for people were developed. However, the knowledge derived from myths was never the only valid truth - it was open to criticism, polemics and discourse.
The oldest sources of knowledge about Greek mythology are the works of Hesiod and Homer. It was an inspiration for subsequent creators to such an extent that new threads were constantly appearing, which were to reflect the relationships between people and gods. Their purpose was to set boundaries that people could not cross.
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This mythology, through Roman mythology, which refers to it in a significant way, has become the heritage of European culture and is still present in various manifestations of social life. Traces of it can be found in the New Age, horoscopes, astrology, worship and modern reconstructionist movements. Hellenism tries to revive the Greek religion.
2. List of Greek gods
Among the Greek gods we can distinguish the main, best known, who play significant roles in mythology, and side ones, about which mythology says relatively little.
2.1. Major Greek gods
Here are the 14 major Greek gods:
- Zeus (according to Roman mythology Jupiter or Jupiter) - the most important, the king of gods, the god of justice, honor, heaven and thunder; Hera's husband;
- Hera (Juno according to Roman mythology) - the queen of gods, goddess of family and marriage, as well as of women getting married; wife of Zeus;
- Hades (Pluto according to Roman mythology) - god of the underworld and the dead, husband of Persephone;
- Hephaestus (Vulkan according to Roman mythology) - god of blacksmiths, goldsmiths, fire and technology;
- Hestia (according to the Roman mythology of Vesta) - goddess of the hearth;
- Hermes (according to the Roman mythology Mercury) - god of travelers, bards, also thieves and merchants, guardian of messengers;
- Dionysus (according to Roman mythology Bacchus) - god of fun, wine, fertility, theater, wild nature, wine and vine;
- Demeter (according to the Roman mythology Ceres) - goddess of fertility, soil fertility, agriculture and crops; Persephone's mother;
- Poseidon (Neptune according to Roman mythology) - god of the seas, rivers and lakes, earthquakes, hurricanes and storms; husband of Amphitrite;
- Ares (Mars according to Roman mythology) - patron of warriors, god of war and battle;
- Apollo (according to Roman mythology Apollo) - god of light, sun, truth, music, poetry, oracle and archery; Artemis's brother;
- Athena (Minerva according to Roman mythology) - goddess of wisdom, mathematics, strategy, civilization, warfare, law, justice, skills and victory;
- Artemis (according to Roman mythology Diana) - goddess of moonlight, forests, mountains, animals, hunting, vegetation and fertility, the great huntress; Apollo's sister;
- Aphrodite (Venus according to Roman mythology) - goddess of love, desire, beauty, pleasure, gardens, spring and flowers.
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2.2. Secondary Greek Gods
Among the side, less known gods, we can distinguish:
- I am hygienic;
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3. Attributes of the Greek gods
Each deity had an attribute and a task assigned to it. And so, for example, Poseidon, as the god of the seas and oceans, held a trident in his hand.
Zeus, the brother of Poseidon and the ruler of all gods, fought with the lightning with which he is associated to this day. Another famous attribute of Zeus is Aegis - a shield made for him by Hephaestus. It was wrapped in the skin of Almatea's goat, and in its center was the head of Medusa (one of the three gorgons), this shield ensured Zeus victory in every fight.
The attributes of Hades were keys and a scepter, Apollo - a lyre and a laurel tree, Athena - an owl and an olive tree, and Hestia's kitchen stove with fire. Helios was associated with the Sun and the four horses, and Eros with arrows and a bow.
Knowledge of Greek mythology, the names of the gods and their attributes is useful throughout school education, as many works refer to it. In modern culture there are many references to Greek mythology, without knowing their meaning, their meaning may be misunderstood.