Storm. How is it made?
The immediate cause of the storm is the collision of two air masses with a large temperature difference. Storms are classified by meteorologists according to their causes.
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1. Storm. Definition
A thunderstorm is a violent atmospheric phenomenon characterized by strong winds, heavy rainfall and lightning strikes.
The immediate cause of the storm is the collision of two air masses with a large temperature difference. Worldwide, about 1,800 storms and about 100 discharges every second take place at the same time.
2. Cumulonimbus. Storm clouds
The phenomenon is associated with the intensive development of clouds with the vertical structure of Cumulonimbus. Cumulonimbus clouds are vertically built and their height is up to 20 km.
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Clouds are formed when moist rising air cools to its dew point, the temperature at which water vapor in the air begins to condense.
The specificity of a storm cloud is that the upward movement of air is very fast, reaching even 50 km / h.
Due to the condensation of water vapor, which additionally raises the temperature, warm air rises very high, creating a cloud with a vertical structure.
3. Types of storms. Storms inside - massive
Storms are classified by meteorologists according to their causes. Internal storms are distinguished - mass (convective) storms, which are divided into thermal and advective storms.
Inside storms - mass storms occur when the sun-heated earth gives off heat to the lowest layer of air. Hot, humid air is less dense, so it rises through a thermal chimney to the upper troposphere.
At a height of several kilometers, where the temperature is about -60 degrees Celsius, the water vapor is rapidly cooled, which in the form of ice crystals and rain falls to the ground, dragging masses of cold air with it.
The vertical movement of air towards the ground is called the downdraft. It is this phenomenon that is responsible for the gusty, cool wind that breaks up just before the storm.
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4. Advection storm
Air advection is the phenomenon of moving air in a horizontal line. The incoming air has a different temperature and humidity than the air mass lying over the area.
An advective storm occurs when masses of cold air flow over the warm and humid air. The warm air rising upwards collides with the incoming cold air, creating an ascending current and vertically structured clouds.
Unlike a convective storm, which is a single storm cell, an advective storm can have more, usually occurs after a cold front has passed.
5. The front storm. Supercells
The frontal storm is violent, dynamic, and covers a large area. It is accompanied by hurricane winds and heavy rainfall, which often cause flooding.
Often a squall rampart is formed at the head of a front storm. This is a special form of cloud that resembles a shaft in the shape of a shaft. It is adjacent to the base of the parent cloud.
The frontal storm is usually multicellular in nature. Storm supercells, the most dangerous type of storm clouds, can also form, causing heavy rainfall, large diameter hail, and gusty winds.
A frontal storm occurs when two atmospheric fronts collide. In Poland, a frontal storm most often occurs when polar sea air masses meet the hot air of a subtropical front.
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6. Lightning. Atmospheric discharges
A lightning bolt is a strong electrical discharge between the cloud and the ground or in the cloud itself.
Lightning strikes occur when air currents rise rapidly in a storm cloud, raising warm air and descending cold air.
This violent movement of air currents causes water droplets, ice crystals, hailstones, and other particles in the cloud to collide intensely with each other. These continuous collisions have an electrostatic effect on them.
This phenomenon can be compared to when when rubbing a wool sweater or taking off a hat - there is an electrification and a spark jumps. A similar mechanism takes place in clouds, only on a much larger scale - they create huge electric charges.
Air currents and the force of gravity distribute electric charges. Positive and negative charges are located in different areas of the cloud. At some point, the amount of these charges is so large that discharging occurs.
When a lightning strike occurs in the cloud itself, it is a horizontal lightning strike. If it occurs between the cloud and the ground, it is a vertical discharge.
Piorun has a temperature close to 30,000. degrees Celsius. In turn, the thunder that we hear during a lightning discharge is caused by the formation of a shock wave of expanding air around the lightning.