Parts of speech - different and unchanging
In Polish, parts of speech are divided into distinct and unchanging. The former include verbs, nouns, adjectives, numerals, and noun, adjective and numerical pronouns, while the latter include adverbs, adverbial pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, exclamation marks and particles. What do you need to know about them?
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1. Different parts of speech
The verb means activities or states. It answers the questions: what does it do? what's the matter with him what condition is he in? The verb is a different part of speech - it is inflected for persons, numbers, tenses, modes, and sides. In singular it comes in three types: masculine, feminine, and neuter, and in plural in two: masculine and non-masculine. Verbs can be perfect or imperfective.
The noun answers the questions: who? What? There are common nouns (e.g. a dog, a human) and one's own (e.g. Janek, Bydgoszcz), vital (e.g. a human) and non-viable (e.g. a house, a pen). A noun denotes objects, people, animals, plants, concepts, activities, and features. The cases and numbers are declined. In a sentence, it can act as an attribute, subject, predicate, object, and adverb.
What are parts of speech? (123rf)
The adjective is declined for cases, numbers, and genders. It answers the questions: what? what? what? which? which? which? whose? whose? whose? It denotes the properties of people, animals, objects and concepts. Determines the noun and adapts its case, number and gender to its grammatical form. It indicates its shape, size or color. It can act as an attribute, subject, predicate, and object in a sentence.
Numeral stands for a number, quantity, or sequence. It answers the questions: how many? which one in turn? There are cardinal (e.g. one), ordinal (e.g. first), fractional (e.g. one and a half), collective (e.g. two) and indefinite numbers (e.g. several dozen). Due to the structure, there are simple numbers (e.g. two, three) and complex numbers (e.g. twenty-five).
Pronouns answer the questions of the parts of speech they are replacing. Noun pronouns appear as a noun and answer its questions: who? What? Adjective pronouns act as an adjective and answer its questions: what? what? what? which? which? which? whose? whose? whose? * Numerical pronouns appear as a numeral and answer its questions: how many? which one in turn?
Due to the meaning of pronouns, we can divide them into: personal (e.g. me, you, us) pointing (e.g. this, this, this) interrogative (e.g. who? what? what?) undefined (e.g. someone, something, somewhere) negative (e.g. nothing, nobody, none) relative (connect the subordinate clause with the parent clause: e.g. who? what?) * feedback (myself, myself, myself)
2. Non-inflected parts of speech
The adverb answers the questions: how? where? when? It means different circumstances of the activity performance (place, time, manner). It is most often formed from adjectives or adverbs. The sentence is an indicative, eg Basia went home yesterday (time factor).
An adverb pronoun appears as an adverb and answers its questions, including: here, there, then, when, from, where, where, that way, once.
A preposition is not an independent part of speech. In combination with another word (usually a noun), it creates a semantic whole, i.e. a prepositional phrase. There are simple prepositions (e.g. in, with, o, without, through, between, towards, under) and complex (e.g. next to, around, between, despite, behind).
The conjunction is also an integral part of speech. It combines words in a sentence or component sentences in compound sentences. It is possible to indicate conjunctions coordinates (e.g. and, and, but, however, or, therefore, instead) and subordinate (e.g. that, that, though, because, because, before).
The exclamation mark expresses the speaker's feelings, emotions, will as well as emotion and calling, e.g. hola! Hello! hooray! hi! ha! ah! oh!
The particle that expresses a question, an order, a denial, a supposition and a wish is also an invariable part of the speech, for example, if only we would.
See also: Oxymoron - what is it?
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