Mountains - genesis and types

Mountains are convex forms of landforms at least 300 meters above sea level. Due to the absolute heights, there are low, medium and high mountains. How were they created? What mountains are there in Poland?

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1. How were the mountains formed?

Endogenous (internal) processes, in other words, land-, mountain- and ocean-forming movements, as well as earthquakes and volcanic phenomena, influence the changes in the appearance of land and oceans. They determine the formation of mountains and lead to changes in both vertical and horizontal terrain.

This is the effect of forces originating in the depths of the Earth. The internal factors shaping our planet have remained unchanged from the very beginning, including:

  • great pressure;
  • very high temperatures;
  • pressure differences (effects of the energy of the Earth's interior).

Mountains are formed during orogeny movements, when individual rock layers are uplifted, creating rock masses (orogens). If they are made of similar rocks and compact, we call them mountain ranges. They can occur as part of a mountain range or singly.

The mountain ranges are elongated in shape and have steep rocky ridges known as the ridge. The mountain ranges are several mountain ranges arranged parallel to each other, separated by valleys, surrounded by foothills. The latter are lower in height than the mountains, the slopes are less steep, and the rivers flowing through them have carved valleys in them.

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There are two main types of mountain ranges on Earth:

  • pacific;
  • Alpine-Himalayan.

The first type includes the mountains of the Americas, mountains formed in Japan, New Zealand, New Guinea, and the shores of the Pacific Ocean.

The second type includes mountains in Europe and South-Central Asia along with the islands of the Indian Ocean and the Malay Archipelago.

Mountain ranges that were uplifted during the same orogeny form a mountain system.

2. Types of mountains

Due to the geological structure and the method of uplift, we can distinguish:

  • folded mountains;
  • volcanic mountains;
  • log mountains.

Another criterion for dividing the mountains is their height. According to this criterion, we distinguish:

  • low mountains;
  • middle mountains;
  • high mountains.

The low mountains are mountains up to 600 m above sea level, the medium ones are mountains up to 1500 m above sea level, and the high ones are peaks above 1500 m above sea level.

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3. What mountains are there in Poland?

In Poland, there are all kinds of mountains divided according to the height criterion. The low mountains include the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, the medium ones - the Sudetes, Bieszczady, Beskidy and Pieniny Mountains, and the high Tatras.

The highest peak in Poland, Rysy, lying on the Polish-Slovak border, in the High Tatras, is 2499 m above sea level. and belongs to the Crown of Europe.

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