Genetic code. Properties and tasks

The genetic code is the relationship between the sequence of bases in DNA (or mRNA, which is its transcript) and the sequence of amino acids in a protein. This code contains all information about the organism and determining the features both visible and invisible to the naked eye, such as a tendency towards certain diseases. What are the characteristics of the genetic code?

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1. What is the genetic code?

The genetic code describes how a nucleic acid base sequence is converted into an amino acid sequence during protein biosynthesis.

The basic coding unit is the three nucleotides - the codon. The order of the arrangement of the three nucleotides in the codon is determined by the given amino acid in the protein, and the order of the codons is determined by the arrangement of the following amino acids.

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2. Features of the genetic code

The genetic code has seven distinctive features. He is:

  • Pointless - every nucleotide within the coding sequences belongs to a codon, so there are no bases irrelevant to translation between the codons;
  • Ternary - three closely spaced nucleotides form a basic information unit (codon-triplet);
  • Degenerate - different codons (in which the third nucleotide is usually different from the others) can encode the same amino acid, that is, almost all amino acids can be coded in different ways;
  • Non-overlapping - individual codons do not overlap.Each nucleotide is part of only one codon (the exceptions may be the genetic codes of some viruses, where the same code fragment is read twice or three times, with phase shift);
  • Unambiguous (determined) - only one amino acid corresponds to a specific three nucleotides in RNA or DNA;
  • Collinear (collinear) - the order of the amino acids in a protein accurately reflects the order of the corresponding codons on the messenger RNA (mRNA);
  • Universal - the above-mentioned principles are followed quite accurately by the protein biosynthesis systems of all organisms. Nevertheless, there are slight deviations from this regularity among bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa and in the mitochondria.

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3. What is the role of the human genetic code?

A notable issue with the genetic code is inheritance. New threads of genetic information created during cell division by the principle of replication (copying). If errors occur in this process, it results in mutations, sometimes with dangerous consequences for the body.

The genetic code includes information such as:

  • voice;
  • skin color;
  • eye color;
  • increase;
  • hair color,

but also information that is extremely important for the body. One of them is heredity or the tendency to develop certain diseases. Sometimes they are congenital diseases, and it happens that our genes contain a tendency to develop a specific type of cancer.

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They are aware that people from a close family have suffered from this type of disease, we can undergo genetic tests and determine the likelihood of developing this disease.

Thanks to such knowledge, by undergoing regular preventive examinations, we can avoid them or notice in time that the treatment is effective. We are able to cure many diseases, also those of a genetic background, by implementing such treatment early.

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