Blood clotting

Blood clotting is measured in a test called a coagulogram. The assessment of blood clotting before a planned pregnancy is very important as it allows you to prevent many problems related to the circulatory system. Sometimes the blood is very dense and platelets stick together easily - such a situation is common when a woman stops contraceptive pills before deciding to have a baby. Oral hormonal contraception causes the blood to thicken and causes blood clots to form. If you plan to become pregnant soon, stop taking your hormone pills first.

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1. Indications for blood coagulation tests

Blood clotting tests are recommended for women who are prone to frequent bleeding or who often bruise and bruise their skin under the skin. Women who discontinued oral hormonal contraception before deciding to become pregnant should also decide to assess blood clotting. Who else should measure clotting rates on a blood test? People who have a prolonged prothrombin time or who suffer from liver disease. The blood for testing is taken from a vein in the arm.

If the blood test shows insufficient clotting, the woman is at risk of bleeding during pregnancy, e.g. from the nose or the genital tract. Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is very dangerous and carries a risk of miscarriage. Low blood clotting is also a high probability of hematomas and mucosal bleeding, as well as a low chance of a clot forming and a long process of scarring of possible wounds on the skin. Frequent bleeding may be caused by a lack of vitamin K or liver problems. High blood clotting can result in blood clots in the veins and a risk of thromboembolism or angina attacks. The blood coagulation test can also diagnose such coagulation disorders as, for example, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) or hemorrhagic diathesis.

2. Blood coagulation parameters

Blood clotting is a natural physiological process that prevents blood loss from blood vessel damage. Blood clotting is mainly caused by fibrinogen dissolved in plasma, which forms clots under the influence of thrombin. The most important plasma coagulation factors are: fibrinogen (factor I), prothrombin (factor II), tissue thromboplastin (factor III), ionized calcium (factor IV), accelerin (factor VI), proconvertin (factor VII), AHG (factor VIII ), PTC (factor IX), Stuart-Prower factor (factor X), PTA (factor XI), Hageman factor (factor XII), fibrinase (factor XIII). Blood clotting test, also called the coagulogram includes parameters such as:

  • prothrombin time (PT), normal: 13-17 seconds,
  • Quick ratio (PT%), the norm: 70-100%,
  • INR, norm: 0.9-1.3,
  • kaolin-kephalin time (APTT), normal: 26-30 seconds,
  • thrombin time (TT), normal: 14-20 seconds,
  • fibrinogen concentration, standard: 200–500 mg / dl,
  • D-dimer level,
  • antithrombin III concentration.

Low blood clotting means that one of the clotting parameters has a reduced clotting ability. In order for blood clotting to be normal, all indicators of the coagulogram must be properly marked. The blood clotting abnormalities can be acquired or congenital, permanent or temporary, acute or mild. Congenital blood clotting disorders are quite rare and usually involve only one parameter. An example of an inherited blood clotting disease is haemophilia. Acquired blood clotting abnormalities may result from chronic diseases, such as liver disease or cancer, or from vitamin K deficiency.

3. International Normalized Ratio INR

INR is normalized prothrombin time - one of the parameters in a blood clotting test. The higher the prothrombin time, the slower the blood clots. INR allows you to assess the bleeding tendency and the formation of blood clots. Controlling the INR helps to determine the effectiveness of treatment of embolisms and blood clots with oral anticoagulants. Determination of INR is recommended in the diagnosis of the causes of bleeding, assessment of liver function, determination of vitamin K deficiency and assessment of the coagulation system before surgery, e.g. before planned caesarean section during delivery. Keep in mind that during the perinatal period, the INR is usually lowered, which means that the blood clots faster and there is a greater risk of a blood clot. The use of painkillers (e.g. acetylsalicylic acid) may cause the INR to worsen.

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