Roman numerals. How to correctly write Roman numbers?
Roman numerals are not widely used for a long time, although they are sometimes used in special cases. The Roman system has an interesting history. And contrary to appearances, it is not difficult to remember Roman numerals at all.
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1. What were Roman numerals used for in the past?
The writing of Roman numerals uses not letters, as some believe, but numbers of Etruscan origin. The Romans adopted them and adapted them to their needs around 500 BCE. (e.g. they increased the number of symbols from five to seven).
Numbers were recorded with it and arithmetic operations were performed with them, which, however, is not an easy task, although it must be admitted that the recording of numbers itself is clear and logical.
However, fractions cannot be written with Roman numerals. Nevertheless, Roman numerals in Latin Europe were used until the end of the Middle Ages (around the 15th century), when they were replaced by Arabic numerals.
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2. Roman numerals and their today's use
Today, Roman numerals are also used. They are used to record classes and years of study, numbering volumes of works, volumes, floors and numbers of high schools (but not primary schools).
They are used in the case of annually repeated events, when they are part of the name at its beginning. In the folk tradition, the year of construction of the house was also written on the facade with Roman numerals.
Using Roman numerals it is also possible to write the date, then the months are noted with them, e.g. 20 November 2019 (note: no dots are placed after Roman numerals).
They are also used in the names of rulers and popes (eg John Paul II), names of historical events (World War II).
There are 7 Roman numerals: M - from Latin. mille D C - from Latin. center L. X V * I
There is no zero symbol in the Roman numeral system.
Sometimes the dials have the mark IIII instead of IV. This deviation is explained in several ways. Louis XIV, king of France, preferred this record. So he ordered watchmakers to take this into account when constructing clocks.
Sometimes it is also explained that the four-character form IIII creates a visual symmetry of the shield towards VIII on its other side. It was also supposed to help people who are not used to reading traditional dials to read the time.
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The Roman numeral system is an additive number system, which means that the value of a number is calculated by the sum of the values of its digital characters. This operation is performed with the exception of the numbers: 4, 9, 40, 90, 400 and 900. In their case, the Roman numerals should be subtracted, not added.
In the Roman notation of numbers the signs V, L and D cannot be next to each other. If the symbols appear in descending order, we add the values corresponding to these symbols.
On the other hand, if in front of the symbol denoting a greater value there is a symbol denoting a lower value, then the lower value is subtracted from the greater value.