Reported and independent speech

One of the syntax topics is indirect and free speech. Their common element is quoting someone else's speech, but the manner of this expression differs. What is it about?

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The grammar of the Polish language is quite complicated. Many students fear her the most. One of the more difficult issues is indirect and indirect speech and the related punctuation rules.

1. Reported and independent speech, what does it depend on?

We encounter independent speech both in colloquial speech and in literature. It is also present in the dialogue transcript or in the discussion transcript.

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Independent speech is a literal quotation of someone else's or own speech, accompanied by an introductory sentence, e.g. Kinga asked my mother: "Can I go to the mountain camps?', 'You can't go to the store alone, "Dad said.

A sentence in independent speech is composed of an introductory sentence and an introductory sentence. The first one informs who is saying the quoted words. On the other hand, an introduced sentence is the quotation of one's own or someone else's words.

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Note that in independent speech, the sentences are not syntactically linked. They are like two separate statements linked only by the content.

Verb: conjugation, types, spelling

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In indirect speech, the utterance is quoted not literally, but in the form of an object clause that begins with conjunctions that that or from a particle whether. In the main sentence, the predicate is usually a verb that indicates a saying, a statement, a request or a question, e.g. My mother asked me if I would go with her to Grandma after school. The school announced that we will be learning remotely from next week.

Reported speech is used, inter alia, in in the reports.

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2. Reported and independent speech in the context of punctuation and spelling rules

Saving someone else's speech is related to the need to follow certain punctuation and spelling rules. The most important of them are:

  • after the introductory sentence, we put a colon, e.g. The teacher asked the students: "Open the books on page eight',
  • we enclose the sentence entered in quotation marks, e.g. Asia asked, "You'll come over after work?',
  • when we use dialogue, we write a sentence from a new line and separate it with dashes,
  • introductory sentences that follow the statements are started with a lowercase letter,
  • in indirect speech, the sentence is devoid of an emotional tone, hence the exclamation point is not used.
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