Symptoms of uterine fibroids

Uterine fibroids are tumors - most often benign - that arise from the muscle fibers of the uterus. They can form on the surface, in the wall, under the mucosa or on the cervix. They happen quite often, but 99 percent. cases are mild lesions. Their appearance is favored by genetic tendencies and problems with the level of estrogens in the blood. Uterine fibroids can cause various symptoms, such as heavy periods leading to anemia, painful pressure on various parts of the reproductive organ, and abdominal pain.

See the video: "Uterine fibroids - why is it worth talking about them?"

1. Causes and symptoms of uterine fibroids

The causes of uterine fibroids are not fully understood. Their formation is probably caused by disturbances in the production and metabolism of some substances secreted in the nervous system. It is also influenced by the high level of estrogen in the blood. In the initial stage of growth, fibroids usually do not cause any discomfort. The occurrence of symptoms depends on the location, number and size of the nodules. The most common symptoms of uterine fibroids include:

  • heavy, painful and long menstrual bleeding with the presence of clots in the blood,
  • spotting from the genital tract,
  • intermenstrual bleeding
  • irregular menstruation
  • lower abdominal pain,
  • sensation of a foreign body or pressure in the abdomen.

Haemorrhagic menstruation results from difficulties in contracting the uterine walls and from prolonged healing of exfoliated endometrial sites. They can cause anemia (symptoms: headaches, increased heart rate, weakness, shortness of breath). Large uterine tumors can put pressure on adjacent organs. If uterine fibroids put pressure on the bladder and urethra, they can cause cystitis, urinary retention and paroxysmal urinary incontinence. Pressure on the ureters can lead to hydronephrosis and renal dysfunction. When they put pressure on the rectum, they can cause constipation and even intestinal obstruction. If the myoma is accompanied by vaginal bleeding, abdominal cramps similar to labor, and when it manifests itself in the vagina, it is called vaginal bleeding. nascent myoma.

2. Proceedings in the treatment of uterine fibroids

Uterine fibroids often coexist with endometriosis or endometrial tumors. Uterine tumors that develop postmenopausal or keep growing in size are rarely myomas. Untreated changes degenerate - necrosis, soften, infection, and fibrosis. This condition causes great pain, the symptoms of the so-called acute abdomen and other systemic ailments. However, fibroids are benign lesions. They are usually only treated when they start to be painful. In most cases, it is surgical treatment.

Asymptomatic tumors should be monitored and checked by a gynecologist every three months. Surgical removal of uterine fibroids is not always necessary. Sometimes hormone therapy is enough. In many cases, however, it is ineffective and has a lot of side effects. Surgical treatment of uterine fibroids, even in the absence of symptoms, is necessary if:

  • the tumor grows rapidly,
  • the myoma is very large,
  • an ovarian tumor cannot be excluded,
  • the myoma has a long stalk and is mobile in the abdominal cavity,
  • there are habitual miscarriages and / or premature births,
  • fibroids cause infertility,
  • there are many fibroids - the so-called myoma uterus.

Surgery for fibroids is the treatment of choice. It can be performed by the transvaginal or transabdominal route. Unfortunately, removal of the myoma does not guarantee complete recovery, especially as it tends to recur. Changes in the uterus can be detected by gynecological examination, ultrasound and laparoscopy.

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