Variation by cases. How to remember her?

Cases and Variation by Cases - What Should You Know? In Polish, cases are used to inflect nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns and adjectival participles. However, it is not an easy task. Many students clearly have a problem with this. Fortunately, there are several ways to learn declension quickly.

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Under the concept of declination, variation by chance is hidden. The ending is the changing ending part of a word. In turn, the part of the word left after the ending has been rejected is called the subject. The themes of changing words are often found in collateral forms. What does it mean?

The alternatives of themes consist in the replacement of vowels and consonants, e.g. dog: ps-a, school: school-e: schools.

1. Cases - variety

  • Nominative: who? What?
  • Genitive: who? what?
  • Dating: who? why?
  • Accusative: who? What?
  • Toolbox: who? what?
  • Locative: about whom? about what?
  • Wołacz: oh!

The denominator most often denotes the subject. In Polish, it is the most frequently used case. The second is the genitive which has a posessive function. On the other hand, the most rarely used case is the crosshair. Usually it signifies a further object.

The accusative comes in three forms:

  • is equal to the genitive, e.g. I see a dog,
  • takes a separate form with the ending -e, e.g. I see a hostess, I see a poet,
  • is equal to the denominator, e.g. I can see fields, trees, mice.

In combinations with prepositions there is a superior. It can also be an independent determination of a method, time or tool, e.g. eat with a fork, a closer object, e.g. work at night or act as an expert, e.g. a sailor.

The locative never occurs by itself. Only functions in conjunction with prepositions. An interesting case is the vocative, which is used to express direct phrases to the addressee. It is not a direct part of the sentence. The form of the vocative is equal to the denominator in some situations. This applies to adjectives and nouns with adjective conjugation, plural and neuter gender nouns.

2. Some rules for variety by case

Nouns of different grammatical genders most often have different endings in the same cases, e.g .:

  • M lp. male: peasant
  • M lp. female: wod-a
  • M lp. neuter: window-o

  • D No. male: peasant

  • D No. female: wod-y
  • D No. neuter: window-a

  • B. item male: peasant

  • B no. female: water
  • B no. neuter: window-o

  • Msc. no. male: peasants

  • Msc lp. female: wodzi-e
  • Msc lp. neuter: windows-e

Sometimes also nouns of the same gender have different endings in the same case, e.g. peasant-a, horse-a in the accusative singular, peasants-e, student-a in the singular locative of masculine nouns. It depends on several factors, including from the end of the topic, the meaning and the construction of the inflected word.


A rule to remember: Vital masculine nouns have the singular accusative equal to the genitive, non-viable nouns equal to the nominative, eg I bought a house. I bought a dog.

3. Change of surnames by chance

Polish surnames, as well as foreign surnames that can be subordinated to Polish declension patterns, change. Polish surnames ending in -ski (-ska), -cki, (-cka), -dzki (-dzka) have an adjective inflection, similarly to male surnames of foreign origin ending in -y, -i, e.g. Batory (Batory, Batory , Batory). Only in the nominative plural do they take the noun ending -owie (Batorowie).

Male surnames ending in a consonant inflect like common nouns with the same ending, eg Nowak, Nowaka, Nowakowi.

Surnames of the type Marzec, Kwiecień, like common nouns of the same wording, in the dependent cases of the singular and the nominative plural, have a secondary topic without e, eg Kwiecień, Kwietniowi, Kwietniowie.

See also: Homeschooling - for or against?

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