Flood and its types

Flooding is the flooding of coastal areas along the riverbed or the seashore as a result of rising waters. This is one of the most devastating natural disasters. Any, even a very small river can cause it.

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1. What is a flood?

Flooding is a temporary, extreme and often violent natural phenomenon. It consists in the rise of river or sea waters in watercourses, reservoirs or at sea.

This rise, after the water crosses the coastal state, floods large areas of land: river valleys, coastal areas or depressive areas, which leads to measurable material and social losses.

The existing river system as well as the hydrological and meteorological situation occurring in particular periods of the year have a great influence on the occurrence of floods.

Flood is one of the most dangerous and destructive natural phenomena that people all over the world struggle with.

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Pursuant to Art. 16 point 43 of the Act of 20 July 2017, Water Law, a flood is the rise of water in natural streams, canals, water reservoirs or at sea, during which the water, after crossing the shore, floods river valleys or depressive areas, causing a threat to the population or property .

2. Types of floods

Floods can be divided according to how they occur and thus we distinguish:

  • precipitation floods - as the name suggests, they are caused by precipitation; we can divide them into torrential or torrential (with high intensity) and spreading - long-lasting, over a large catchment area;
  • winter floods - occur as a result of the intensification of some ice phenomena;
  • snowmelt floods - occur as a result of rapid snow melting;
  • storm floods - they arise due to strong winds, storms occurring on the coasts and lagoons.

Floods may occur as a result of, inter alia, intense rainfall, winter thaw, by damaging the river for various reasons, as a result of damage to hydrotechnical facilities, such as dam damage, etc.

In inhabited areas, urban flooding is a threat, and in dry areas, so-called flash floods.

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3. Scales of the flood

We define the size of the flood on a 3-point scale and distinguish it in this way:

  • ordinary flood,
  • great flood;
  • catastrophic flood.

The extent of the occurrence of floods is also determined on a 3-point scale and distinguished in this way:

  • small, local and local floods;
  • medium-sized, regional floods do not affect the functioning of the state;
  • large, national floods, of the nature of natural disasters, disturb the normal functioning of the state as a whole or a large part of it; international assistance may be needed.

We can also divide them into:

  • natural - they happen without human intervention;
  • anthropogenic - they occur as a result of a failure or due to improper management of hydrotechnical devices.
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