Physical development of a preschooler

Pre-school age, i.e. the period of middle childhood, is from 4 to 6 years old. Then, a significant motor and sensory development takes place, which enables the child to move around in the immediate vicinity and to reach interesting objects. Pre-school children are characterized by a strong need for exercise, the so-called hunger for movement, which is the basis of their great mobility. A child's physical development is also marked by significant advances in self-service activities - washing hands, using the toilet, dressing and eating. Fine and fine motor skills are improved, and the proportions of the child's figure change.

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1. Somatic development of preschool children

Child's physical activity

Preschool age is a time of high physical activity of children. You can start developing your preferred sports.

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The child, entering preschool age, has all the milk teeth, moves freely, walking and running, is quite independent in terms of self-service. There are also significant achievements in motor and somatic development. Changes in height and weight are not as intense as in the previous period - in toddlers (2-3 years of age). On average, six-year-old girls are about 116 cm, and boys are close to 118 cm. The body weight of a six-year-old boy is approximately 22 kg, and that of girls - almost 21 kg. The silhouette of a preschool child is clearly changing. The body lengthens as the limbs grow faster, and around the age of 5, the cerebral part of the skull is slightly enlarged, while the facial part (craniofacial part) grows.

The child's neural system is also subject to developmental modifications. There are four types of changes in the nervous system:

The child's neural system is also subject to developmental modifications. There are four types of changes in the nervous system:

  • progressive myelination of nerve fibers, especially in the frontal lobes;
  • increase in the number of synapses,
  • the formation of new connections between neurons
  • an increase in the production of chemical neurotransmitters that conduct impulses from one neuron to another.

The coordinating role of the frontal lobes makes children in middle childhood capable of directing their attention, creating plans, reflecting on their own behavior and solving logical and mathematical problems.

2. Motor development of preschoolers

In preschool age, an increase in motor performance is observed. A particularly dynamic motor development is marked around the age of 5, known as the golden period in a child's motor development. Pre-school children are very mobile, i.e. hungry for movement. The already mastered movements and activities are clearly improved and new skills emerge. Simple movements are combined into combinations of movements such as run and jump, run and kick the ball, grab and throw the ball. A pre-school child walks and runs freely, which makes its way of moving closer to that of an adult. Children usually master several motor activities simultaneously. They learn to skate, roll, cycle, dance, swim, climb trees. Toddlers cannot concentrate on one activity for a long time, so they often change the type of physical activity.

The activities performed reveal the right rhythm, harmony and smoothness of movement. The phase structure of movements is noticeable. However, the child's activities still lack accuracy, flexibility and anticipation. Movement coordination also requires improvement. Manual dexterity is clearly developed, the child exercises his hand by drawing, molding from plasticine, threading beads on a string, throwing and catching a ball, cutting paper with scissors, etc. The strength and endurance of movements remain rather low, which makes the children unable to adapt to adult activities, especially long-term ones. Patterns from the child's environment play an important role in learning movements. Cultural conditions are also strengthened by the gender-related differentiation of movements (sexual dimorphism) that was marked in this period.

Boys usually perform better than girls in activities that require more energy and strength (long jumping, running, kicking, throwing a ball). Girls, on the other hand, are superior to boys in motor skills that require balance, rhythm and precision (jumping rope, drawing, writing). The development of fine motor skills in preschool age concerns two main spheres of a child's functioning - self-service and drawing and writing (graphomotor skills). Children are becoming more and more independent in dressing (in 4-5 years they undress and dress without help, there may be problems with fastening buttons and lacing shoes), taking care of physiological needs (age 3) and eating (4 years old). -6 years of age, the older ones use cutlery).Children at the age of 3 draw recognizable shapes, and older ones use object and human diagrams and are able to compose a drawing showing many objects.

Boys perform better than girls in activities that require more energy and strength (long jumping, running, kicking, throwing a ball). Girls, on the other hand, are superior to boys in motor skills that require balance, rhythm and precision (jumping rope, drawing, writing). The development of fine motor skills in preschool age concerns two main spheres of a child's functioning - self-service and drawing and writing (graphomotor skills). Children are becoming more and more independent in dressing (in 4-5 years they undress and dress without help, there may be problems with fastening buttons and lacing shoes), taking care of physiological needs (age 3) and eating (4 years old). -6 years of age, the older ones use cutlery). Children at the age of 3 draw recognizable shapes, and older ones use object and human diagrams and are able to compose a drawing showing many objects.

Preschoolers are very mobile, they run quickly up the stairs, placing their legs alternately, they perfect the sense of static and dynamic balance, they jump on one leg and climb the ladders. During this time, they quickly grow out of their clothes. The pre-school period is organized under the banner of movement and activity, so it is not worth inhibiting the toddler while running and reducing his "aspirations to discover the beauties of the world". Thanks to physical activity, the child has the opportunity to improve in the field of fine and gross motor skills, as well as acquires greater awareness of his own body.

Tags:  Baby Pregnancy-Planning Preschooler