Satellites. Natural and artificial - what are their functions?
Satellites are all relatively light bodies orbiting another larger body. The paths of movement of these bodies are orbits. How many natural satellites does the Earth have? What are the tasks of artificial satellites? What are they characterized by?
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1. What are satellites?
A satellite is an object that orbits a planet. It can be artificial or natural (moon).
1.1. Artificial satellite
The artificial one is launched into the orbit of the celestial body by man by launching a rocket. When the rocket is fired from the engine, the mass is ejected in the vertical direction and in the lower direction. During the ejection, the racket itself is pushed upwards.
1.2. Natural satellite - the moon
A natural satellite is a celestial body of natural origin that orbits a planet, asteroid or dwarf planet.
The planet and its moons orbit around a common center of mass. Usually, only the largest object in this type of system is called a planet, but if we are dealing with a planet and moon of a similar size, we can talk about double planets. Such a system is, for example, Earth - Moon.
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Due to their orbit, moons can be divided into irregular and regular. The regulars orbit the same side as the planet rotates around its axis, in nearly circular orbits close to the planet's equatorial plane.
According to most scientists, the moons were formed from the same material that formed the planet around which the moon orbits.
Irregular moons orbit orbits that do not lie in the plane of the planet's rotation. The orbits of these moons are usually elongated and very distant from the planet, sometimes described as chaotic.
Irregular satellites are usually small in size. Presumably, these bodies are foreign objects that have been intercepted by the planet's gravitational field.
How was the Moon orbiting the Earth formed? The most common theory today is that it was due to a collision with the proto-Earth of another protoplanet - the Moon was formed by the matter of both objects thrown into orbit around the Earth.
2. What are the functions of an artificial satellite?
The tasks of a satellite are defined by its type. Most often its purpose is:
- weather forecasting;
- transmission of radio signals;
- carrying out scientific research;
- handling telephone calls;
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Meteorological satellites are designed to provide information about the weather, collecting information about atmospheric currents, cloudiness, chemical composition of the air, temperature altitude, etc.
Internet connectivity is done using terrestrial cables through which the ISP sends information to the satellite system, the data is encoded in radio waves, then sent to satellites, and then sent back over the Earth to the recipients' antennas. Upon receipt, these antennas process the information and send it to the user equipment.
The geophysical satellites that study the Earth's surface are equipped with infrared light. Thanks to this, it is possible to register thermal radiation from the observed object. The transmitted data may relate to agriculture, urban planning, geology or oceanography.
The satellites used for navigation use the GPS system. The communication system is supported by 130 communication satellites. Messages are sent from antennas with a diameter of at least 30 meters from the satellite, and this is done using a microwave. The latter sends a message to the center from which the call is directed.