Solar system. Genesis and characteristics
In the Milky Way galaxy, the planetary system consists of the sun, eight planets, and smaller celestial bodies.
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1. What are celestial bodies?
The solar system is a system of celestial bodies that orbit the sun, attracted by its gravity.
In this system, the sun, which is a star, lies in a central point, and around it are 8 planets and their moons, as well as asteroids, comets and other smaller cosmic bodies.
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2. The heliocentric and geocentric theory
The model of the solar system was created on the basis of the heliocentric theory by Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543).
The Torunian, astronomer and scientist, based on his research and observations of the sky, created a theory according to which the Earth moves around the sun, and the sun itself is at the center of our planetary system.
Thus, Copernicus denied the then valid geocentric theory, which assumed that the Earth is stationary and lies in the center of the world, and that other celestial bodies, including the Sun, revolve around it.
3. The Copernican Revolution
The first edition of the work "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium" (On the revolutions of celestial bodies), which contained a lecture on the structure of the universe, was published in 1543, i.e. in the year of Copernicus's death.
The theories contained in the work diametrically reversed the perspective from which the man of medieval Europe looked at himself and the world around him so far. Copernicus' theories caused enormous changes in the way of thinking about the universe, they influenced religion, philosophy and politics.
Due to the strength and importance of the changes that followed the dissemination of the astronomer's theory, they were called the "Copernican Revolution."
4. Solar system. The Big Bang Theory
The solar system is part of the Galaxy known as the Milky Way. Scientists estimate that the solar system was formed about 4.5 billion years ago as a result of the explosion of a supernova. Under the influence of this powerful explosion, the cloud, consisting of gases and dusts of matter, began to shrink.
The contraction of the nebula increased the pressure and temperature to such an extent that a star, the Sun, was born in its center. Planets and other celestial bodies began to form out of bits of matter and gas particles swirling around the star.
5. The sun star
The sun is a star that is a mixture of gases, mainly hydrogen and helium. Under the influence of thermonuclear reactions, the Sun produces light and temperature.
The surface of the Sun is around 5500 degrees Celsius. The diameter of the Sun is 1.4 million km. and is 109 times the diameter of the Earth.
6. Planets of the solar system
The planet is a celestial body, spherical and large enough to be able to generate its own gravity.
Eight planets orbit the sun. Counting from the nearest sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
The first 4 planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars - have a hard surface. They are made of metals, silicates and have a high density. Due to their structure, they are called terrestrial planets and inner planets.
The planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are much larger than the terrestrial planets. They do not have a hard, solid surface due to the fact that they are mainly made of rock, ice and gas. These planets are called gas giants and the outer planets because of their distance from the sun.
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7. Satellites and moons
Natural satellites, also called moons, are large, spherical celestial bodies that orbit the planet. So far, about 185 natural satellites of planets have been observed in the solar system.
Among the inner planets, only Earth and Mars have moons. In the case of Earth, the satellite is the moon. Mars, on the other hand, has two satellites, but these are small moons of several dozen kilometers in diameter.
In turn, the outer planets can have several dozen satellites. Jupiter has 67, Saturn - 62, Uranus - 27, and Neptune - 13.
8. Small celestial bodies
The solar system is also made up of small celestial bodies such as comets, asteroids, asteroids and interstellar dust.
Comets - are small bodies made of rock and ice. Comets move in a planetary system. As they approach the sun, its heat causes a coma, or a gaseous envelope, to form around the comet. Thanks to this, you can observe them.
Asteroids, also called asteroids. These are celestial bodies that are in the form of tiny or giant rocks. Entering the earth's atmosphere, they burn rapidly. If the asteroid does not burn completely, it falls to Earth as a meteorite.