Universe. How was it created, what is its future?
The universe is everything that ever existed and exists. It was created nearly 14 billion years ago, and has been expanding and changing continuously since then. We don't know much about him, and knowledge about him is also not entirely certain. It is also difficult to imagine its shape and boundaries. How was the universe created? What's his future?
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1. How was the universe created?
The universe (Latin universum) includes everything that physically exists: all laws, all space, time, physical constants and all forms of matter and energy. This word can also be used as a synonym for "cosmos", "nature", "world".
It was formed about 14 billion years ago, according to the Big Bang Theory, from one point, maximum hot and dense. This point was where all energy and matter concentrated and took up all space; there was nothing but him. However, this theory does not explain how this outburst occurred, nor what the point was and where it came from.
During the above-mentioned Big Bang, time and space defined by the amount of energy and matter appeared. As space expands, the density of energy and matter within it decreases.
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After the initial stage of expansion, the universe cooled enough to allow the formation of simple atoms and subatomic particles. Due to the force of gravity, huge clouds of these elements merged to form stars, planets and everything else in the universe.
Since the explosion, the Universe has been constantly expanding and changing, to the form we know today. At the end of the 20th century, it was discovered that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, and that most of the energy and matter in the universe is of a completely different form than what we can directly observe.
2. What's in the universe?
The visible aggregates of matter in the Universe are galaxies, made up of thousands of stars, dust and gases. Many thousands of galaxies form clusters, which in turn combine to form superclusters. Within galaxies there are smaller objects such as planets, asteroids, satellites, comets and meteorites.
Stars are clusters of matter composed primarily of helium and hydrogen. From the perspective of the Earth, they seem small due to the distance that separates us from them. In fact, each of them is a huge ball of extremely hot gases. Their size is much larger than that of the Earth or other planets.
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One of these stars is our sun. It is the brightest point in the sky because it is closest to our planet. There are many stars much larger than him, but as I mentioned before, the distance between them makes us see them as tiny points.
The second star closest to our planet - Proxima, is a million times farther than our day star.
Some stars orbit around planets - objects made of gas or ball-shaped rocks. There are no other objects of similar size in their vicinity. They orbit their main star and deflect its light.
There may be natural satellites right next to the planets. They are objects that stick to them by gravity. The satellites orbit their planets. One of nothing is our moon.
Asteroids (asteroids) are natural rock or metal objects with a diameter of not less than 1000 km. They orbit the star in their orbit.
Comets are made of rock dust and ice. The nucleus of these objects emits light energy, while the ice is sublimated and can be observed in space as a dust-gas tail. Comets orbit their star in an elongated orbit.
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Meteoroids are rock fragments of comets and asteroids. After entering the atmosphere, they burn by friction. As a result of this phenomenon, a visible streak of light is created, which we call a meteor. If a meteor reaches the Earth's surface, it becomes a meteorite.
Thousands of galaxies form clusters, which in turn form superclusters.
3. What is the future of the universe?
Some researchers argue that at some point the universe will stop expanding and start shrinking back into the form it evolved from.
According to another theory, however, it will expand endlessly, and this hypothesis is confirmed by the latest research. Scientists observed starlight curved by the gravity of a group of galaxies. This allowed them to estimate the amount of the so-called dark energy, and therefore also the future of the universe.
The conclusions from this research indicate that it continues to expand until it becomes huge and dead, and the temperature drops to absolute zero. The results of this research were published by the "Science" weekly.