The formulas for the percentage concentration: weight and volume
The percentage of a mixture or solution is the percentage of a chemical in the mixture or solution. In other words, it is the ratio of this substance to the total solution (including this very substance). There is a percentage by volume or by weight (volume).
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1. Percentage concentration - basic information
The terms "diluted solution", "concentrated solution" or "saturated solution" tell us whether a given substance dissolved in a solution is low or high.
There are situations when we need to accurately provide its content. In this case, we can use the formula for the percentage concentration. There are several ways to present the composition of the solution, i.e. its concentration. We can distinguish two types of percentage concentration: by weight and by volume.
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The percentage by weight (by weight) determines how many parts by weight (by weight) of the dissolved substance are in 100 parts by weight (by weight) of the solution. For example, 5% means 100 grams of solution contain 5 grams of solute and 95 grams of solvent.
The volume percentage shows how many cubic centimeters of the solute are in 100 cubic centimeters of the solution. For example, a 10% solution means that 100 cubic centimeters of solution contain 10 cubic centimeters of solution and 90 cubic centimeters of solvent. For this type of percentage, the notation "v / v" (volume / volume) is often used.
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2. What is the formula for the percentage concentration?
To calculate the percentage by weight, we take M with the index "s" as the mass of the solute (in grams) and M with the index "r" as the mass of the total solution (mass of the substance added to the mass of the solvent in grams). The percentage by weight (mass) with the index "p" will be calculated according to the formula:
Cp = Ms / Mr x 100%
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To calculate the percentage by volume, we take V with the index "s" for the volume of the substance (in cubic centimeters) and V with the index "r" for the volume of the entire solution (also in cubic centimeters). The volume percentage of C, with the "p" index, will be calculated according to the formula:
Cp = Vs / Vr x 100%