Adnexitis is an inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes. They are treated together in this case as any inflammation in the ovary or fallopian tube spreads to both organs. Symptoms of adnexitis are primarily cramp-like abdominal pain, elevated body temperature and irritation of the peritoneum. Treatment is primarily antibiotic therapy.
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1. Causes and symptoms of adnexitis
Inflammation of the appendages is caused by bacteria. These are:
- colon bacilli,
- gonorrhea split,
However, for inflammation to occur, appropriate conditions must exist. Usually, the infection comes from the outside - from the vagina, cervix and the lining of the womb. An easier path for bacteria appears when the cervical canal is obstructed, e.g. during menstruation, when using an IUD, during certain gynecological procedures. An increased risk of bacterial infection of the appendages also occurs in the case of miscarriage, childbirth, puerperium and curettage of the uterine cavity.
Much less often, the infection comes from within, that is, from another inflammatory focus. It happens with tonsillitis, sinusitis, tuberculosis and strep throat. Intra-abdominal inflammation (appendicitis, sigmoid diverticulosis) can also spread to the appendages.
It was noticed that adnexitis affects more sexually active women. The risk increases with the number of partners they have intercourse with. Inflammation of the appendages is much less common in girls or in postmenopausal women. Women taking single-component or combined contraceptive pills also suffer less frequently. The cervical mucus that thickens when taking hormones blocks the way not only for sperm, but also for bacteria.
Symptoms of adnexitis are:
- lower abdominal pain
- soreness during a gynecological examination,
- soreness during intercourse,
- temperature measured in the mouth or rectum above 38.3 degrees C,
- detection of bacteria in a vaginal swab,
- endometrial biopsy confirming endometritis,
- inflammation and adhesions visible in laparoscopy,
- abscess visible on ultrasound.
2. Treatment of adnexitis
In the treatment of adnexitis, antibiotics with a broad spectrum of action are used, effective against aerobic, anaerobic bacteria and chlamydia. In addition, you can relieve painful symptoms with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. Additionally, these drugs increase the access of antibiotics to the inflamed organs, as they increase the blood supply to the pelvic organs.
Women with adnexitis should rest in bed. It is recommended to exercise abstinence until complete recovery. A woman's condition will also be improved by an easily digestible diet and plenty of fluids. If you suspect that the inflammation is caused by an IUD, you need to think about removing it.
Untreated inflammation of the appendages can lead to chronic inflammation and recurring symptoms for trivial reasons.