Phraseological relationships: definition, types and examples

Phraseological relationships occur in all varieties of the Polish language. They perform various functions, incl. they increase the clarity and plasticity of statements. The linguistic image of the world is also hidden in them. What else should you know about phraseologisms?

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Phraseological relationships are the combination of two or more words established by custom. Its meaning should be sought throughout the utterance, but it is often figurative and does not result from the combination of individual components, e.g. blue Bird it is not a blue-colored bird, but a reckless man who avoids performing his duties.

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1. Phraseological compounds and their functions

Phraseologisms color the language. They complete its vocabulary, e.g. there is no feminine equivalent of a verb get married, the role is therefore played by a phraseological relationship get married. Moreover, phraseologisms enhance the expressiveness of the text and color it. They also introduce an element of humor, and in literary works they are used to stylize colloquial speech.

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Journalists eagerly use phraseologies because they enhance the communicativeness and attractiveness of the text.

2. Classification of phraseological compounds according to Stanisław Skorupka

Due to the grammatical form of words that are part of phraseologisms, the following are distinguished:

  • expressions - compounds that are equivalent to a noun, adjective or adverb, e.g. making the robot (tricky actions), not beaten in the crown (not stupid) heaven in mouth (something delicious)
  • phrases - associations of verbs or adverbial participles with other words, e.g. sit on two stools (to be two-faced), to know each other like bald horses (to know each other very well)
  • phrases - compounds that have the form of a sentence (single or complex) or a sentence equivalent, e.g. The awl came out of the bag. Among the phrases there are also sayings, proverbs, maxims and maxims.

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Due to the degree of fusion of the components of the phraseological compound, phraseologisms are distinguished:

  • loose (free) - these are syntactic relationships of words that are combined temporarily, e.g. the sun burns, burns
  • combinable - compounds in which one of the components can be mentioned, but only to a limited extent, e.g. pave the way, passage, path
  • constants - multi-word compounds with a fossilized grammatical form and a stable word composition, e.g. take its toll (tease)

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3. Sources of phraseological compounds

Phraseologisms come from many sources. Their treasury is mythology (Achilles' heel, Sisyphus works, the Trojan horse) and the Bible (the prodigal son, the land of milk and honey, alpha and omega). Many of them come from history (Pyrrhic victory, Spartan conditions), from old customs (serve the black soup), military, and especially medieval chivalry (crush the copies) and observation of human and animal behavior (make big eyes, walk on eyelashes).

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